Thus, the skin stretch induced by many routine movements e. However, tables are not always present, and in a mobile context, users are unlikely to want to carry appropriated surfaces with them at this point, one might as well just have a larger device. A person might walk toward their home, tap their palm to unlock the door and then tap some virtual buttons on their arms to turn on the TV and start flipping through channels. In addition to the energy that propagates on the surface of the arm, some energy is transmitted inward, toward the skeleton Figure 3. I am very grateful to Prof. In particular, when placed on the upper arm above the elbow , we hoped to collect acoustic information from the fleshy bicep area in addition to the firmer area on the underside of the arm, with better acoustic coupling to the Humerus, the main bone that runs from shoulder to elbow.
For example, we can readily flick each of our fingers, touch the tip of our nose, and clap our hands together without visual assistance. While bone conduction microphones might seem a suitable choice for Skinput, these devices are typically engineered for capturing human voice, and filter out energy below the range of human speech whose lowest frequency is around 85Hz. Furthermore, proprioception our sense of how our body is configured in three-dimensional space allows us to accurately interact with our bodies in an eyes-free manner. Thus most sensors in this category were not especially sensitive to lower-frequency signals e. Few external input devices can claim this accurate, eyes-free input characteristic and provide such a large interaction area. When the sensor was placed below the elbow, on the forearm, one package was located near the Radius, the bone that runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist, and the other near the Ulna, which runs parallel to this on the medial side of the arm closest to the body. We tuned the upper sensor package to be more sensitive to lower frequency signals, as these were more prevalent in fleshier areas.
Appropriating the Body as an Input Surface Devices with significant computational power and capabilities can now be easily carried on our bodies. Resdarch, proprioception our sense of how our body is configured in three-dimensional space allows us to accurately interact with our bodies in an eyes-free manner. Appropriating the human body as an input device is appealing not only because we have roughly two square meters of external surface area, but also because much of it is easily accessible by our hands e.
Thus, features skjnput computed over the entire input window and do not capture any temporal dynamics.
Help Center Find new research papers in: Bone conduction microphones are typically worn near the ear, where they can sense vibrations propagating from the mouth and larynx during speech.
Papeg these, average amplitude ratios between channel pairs 45 features are calculated.
(DOC) SKINPUT TECHNOLOGY | Sai Dheeraj Reddy –
skinpug To further illustrate the utility of our approach, we conclude with several proof-of-concept applications we developed. When using Skinput to recognize live input, the same acoustic features are computed on-the fly for each segmented input.
Speech input is a logical choice for always- available input, but is limited in its precision in unpredictable acoustic environments, and suffers from privacy and scalability issues in shared environments. Finally, bone conduction microphones and headphones now common consumer technologies – represent an additional bio- sensing technology that is relevant to the present work.
Skinput: appropriating the body as an input surface
Skip to main content. Signals simply diminished in intensity overtime. We assess the capabilities, accuracy and limitations of our technique through a two-part, twenty-participant user study. When shot with a high- speed camera, these appear as ripples, which propagate outward from the point of contact see video. Third, it classified these input instances. These are normalized by the highest-amplitude FFT value found on any channel.
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Bones are held together by ligaments, and joints often include additional biological structures such as fluid cavities. These leverage the fact that sound frequencies relevant to human speech propagate well through bone.
A point FFT for all ten channels, although only the lower ten values are used representing the acoustic power from 0Hz to Hzyields features. Inspection of the confusion matrices showed no systematic errors in the classification, with errors tending to be evenly distributed over the other digits. Adding more mass lowers the range of excitation to which a sensor responds; we weighted each element such that it aligned with particular frequencies that pilot studies showed to be useful in characterizing bio-acoustic input.
Click skiput to sign up. By adding small weights to the end of the cantilever, we are able to alter the resonant frequency, allowing the sensing element to be responsive to a unique, narrow, low-frequency band of the acoustic spectrum. Data was then sent from our thin client over a local socket to our primary application, written in Java. I am very grateful to Prof.
The highly discrete nature of taps i. Brute force machine learning approach is employed, computing features in total, many of which are derived researh.
These, however, are computationally expensive and error prone in mobile scenarios where, e. In our prototype system, we choose to focus on the arm although the technique could be applied elsewhere. However, tables are not always present, and in a mobile context, users are unlikely to want to carry appropriated surfaces with them at this point, one might as reserach just have a larger device.
This is unsurprising given the morphology of the arm, with a high degree of bilateral symmetry along the long axis. I also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all dignitary Staff-members of Nalla Malla Reddy Engineering College for their kind assistance and cooperation during the development of my Seminar report.
This excitation vibrates soft tissues surrounding the entire length of the bone, resulting in new longitudinal waves that propagate outward to the no. Similarly, we also believe that joints paepr an important role in making tapped locations acoustically distinct.