Google Scholar. Specifically, American psychologist Janet Spence argued that the terms masculinity and femininity are inappropriate for labeling the scales, as they assess only instrumentality and expressiveness. Bendig, A. In addition to noting that some individuals were exclusively feminine or masculine, Bem also found that some individuals have balanced levels of traits from both scales.
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Ramanaiah, N. One can also add to this definition the expectations which are held about appropriate personality characteristics. Subsequent analyses by Bem and others have supported the claim that masculinity and femininity are logically and empirically independent. In American psychologist Sandra L.
An androgynous score is the result of extremely masculine and feminine scores and an undifferentiated score is the result of extremely low masculine and feminine scores.
Oliveira LSO Masculinidade feminilidade androginia. And, given that fatigue is a common issue for older adults participating in research studies [ 46 ], using less time-consuming instruments, such as the BSRI, is an important strategy.
Of those, 10 positive and 10 negative characteristics were chosen e. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.
Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from June Articles with permanently dead external links. The short form discards the traits "feminine", "masculine", and "athletic" from the self-report scales.
Psychological Bulletin, , 56, 81—