This suggested that nuclei in these two cell types are organized with similar principles despite their extra y or x-chromosome sex linked traits in Crewe overall shape. One suggestion is that the disease results because loss of mechanical strength of the nuclear membrane causes nuclear fragility during muscle contraction These include endocrine regulation dorsal medial-ventromedial nucleireproduction, circadian and stress responses dorsomedial hypothalamusfluid balance, ingestive behaviours arcuate nucleus and dorsomedial hypothalamus and thermoregulation lateral hypothalamus.
To estimate the expression pattern of each of these families, we averaged expression levels of their transcripts and reported the top five tissues of expression. However, we might also expect the selection for duplicate retention to be the strongest on the more highly expressed genes, but we see no evidence for higher duplicability for high maximally expressed genes on the X.
The SAXI [ 18 ] hypothesis suggests sexual antagonism as being at the heart of the issue. Subsequently, genes on that chromosome not coding for gender are usually expressed in the male phenotype even if they are recessive since there are no corresponding genes on the Y chromosome in most cases.
The breadth of expression strongly depends on promoter GC-content, but not isochore GC-content, eliminating the possibility of the impact of the different rate of biased gene conversion bGC on the breadth of expression on the X. Older children and adults with the condition tend to be somewhat taller than their peers.
Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. Huminiecki L, Heldin CH. Exocrine gastrointestinal glands, in contrast, are the most X-depleted tissues. For example, as we noted in extra y or x-chromosome sex linked traits in Crewe introduction, the GC-content on the X is most likely a consequence of reduced recombination.
Ho Sui 12Oliver M.
Sex chromosomeeither of a pair of chromosomes that determine whether an individual is male or female. Views Read Edit View history. The condition is uncommon, but not rare, affecting between 1 in and 1 in 1, men. G-banding ideograms of human X chromosome.
Both males and females retain one of their mother's X chromosomes, and females retain their second X chromosome from their father.
Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Sequence analysis of the collection of clones shows that, in most pairwise comparisons, single and double base substitutions are scattered throughout the coding sequence.
We suggest that the most gene-dense regions of the human genome are preferentially located in the nuclear interior with the gene-poor regions located progressively towards the nuclear periphery. Epub Apr In parts e — h , scatterplots are plotted of the number of genes against the length of the chromosome e , the number of genes against the number of transcription factor binding sites f , the number of transcription factor binding sites against the length of the chromosome g , and the density of transcription factor binding sites against the density of genes h.
There is, for example, evidence for a movement off the mammalian X chromosome via retroposition of genes whose retroposed copies are highly expressed in the male germline [ 19 ].