Fig 5. Daley M, Goller F. Emphasis is placed on the witness narrative: who saw, wrote, spoke or has been affected by genocide or human rights calamities. Only the bottom syrinx diameter and the pessulus width showed no differences across species.
Proc Roy Soc Lond B. The anatomy of vocal divergence in North American elk and European red deer. Our analyses did not detect a correlation between cecal length and flying ability across the sample, suggesting that flight is not an inherently limiting factor for cecal length.
Previous morphological studies of the hummingbird syrinx have also described the presence of a calcified tympanum, a certain number of accessory cartilages, one or two pairs of intrinsic muscles and the tracheolateralis muscle 1314151617
To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Parnell NF, Streelman JT Genetic interactions controlling sex and color establish the potential for sexual conflict in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes.
Int J Dev Biol 75— Cytogenet Genome Res — Expression of Sry early in embryonic development initiates testis differentiation by activating male-specific developmental networks, while in its absence, ovaries develop. These theoretical arguments help to account for the prevalence of gynodioecy and the XY chromosome system via pathway 2 observed in plants; nevertheless, all four pathways may be biologically relevant, although no known examples for pathway 4 currently exist.
Sexually antagonistic selection, which occurs when a mutation is beneficial to one sex but detrimental to the other, can also drive transitions between sex determination by different pairs of chromosomes .
Tissue oscillations are maintained much more easily, i. Whereas tracheal length is greater in birds, tracheal diameter is not different between mammals and birds Fig 6. Illustrations of representative bird species reproduced with permission from: del Hoyo, J.
With very strong interaction, occurrence of nonlinear phenomena bifurcations in the acoustic output can make predictions of the frequency change more difficult [ 59 ]. Phylogeny and herbivory are related to avian cecal size. The effect of subglottal resonance upon vocal fold vibration.