Missing heritability The observation that for most complex traits, the sum of the identified trait-associated genetic variation contributes only a proportion of the estimated trait heritability. Sex, gender, genetics, and health. Loley, C. Genomic imprinting on the X chromosome: implications for brain and behavioral phenotypes.
Another issue is unrealistic assumption of homogeneous contributions to genetic variance, producing potential bias in genetic variance [ 18 ]. Sex differences in stroke. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues.
Their underlying assumptions are violated by ignoring interactions of sex with genetic factors and heterogeneous genetic effects by sex. Numerous analytical models have treated sex as an essential factor. Examining the role of neuroinflammation in major depression. The interplay of Bayesian and frequentist analysis.
Sex bias in CNS autoimmune disease mediated by androgen control of autoimmune regulator.
On a short-term scale, this means that during one generation, only the sex that expresses the sex-limited trait s of interest will be affected by selection. InHosken et al. By using a species of flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutusexhibiting sex-limited traits in the form of exaggerated mandible size, they were able to test this hypothesis.
Play media. While this concept was still in its infancy, Darwin catalyzed the further development of sex-related selection. Sign in via your Institution.
Cancer Inform. Sex determination depends on the existence of Y chromosome, especially the sex-determining region Y gene on the chromosome [ 1 ]. Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes of sexually reproducing species but are expressed in only one sex and have no penetrance , or are simply 'turned off' in the other.
Sex differences in disease genetics: evidence, evolution, and detection.